LAWS MARABASTAD

 

APPENDIX B: MARABASTAD

This appendix provides a chronological listing of selected regulations leading to the establishment and management of the area now known as Marabastad.  Interspersed among these are important events that impacted on the lives of the people living in the area.  The sequential order may make it somewhat difficult to identify processes because Black people were not regarded as citizens but as distinctly different groups needing specific legislation according to race and the threats that each group posed to British and Afrikaner rulers.  Listing events chronologically brings together the different regulations for Africans, Indians and Coloureds and gives some indication of very complicated processes and the effort required to perpetuate and manage segregation, keep it under control and overcome its contradictions.

1830 - 1923

1.  UNDER THE SOUTH AFRICAN (TRANSVAAL BOER) REPUBLIC 1830 - 1900

    

1830's  

Voortrekkers settle in the area that later becomes Pretoria

near Ndebele villages

Manala community - eastern Moot north of the Magaliesberg

Tswana and Northern Sotho in central area

1844 

Article 29 of the ‘Drie-en-dertig Artikelen'  (South African Republic)

       Africans not allowed to settle permanently on white farms

      

       1855

       White farmers formally establish Pretoria

       African people from rural areas move to town to look for work

       Some find work on small firms along the Apies River

       Others - domestic workers - accommodated in rooms/huts on white property

       1858

       Africans allowed to settle and work in white towns.

       Sign contracts with  employers

(1860 Indians-indentured labourers-arrive in Natal.  After a five year period

of indenture, those who become free, are subject to a £3 tax. Many leave for the Transvaal and other places.)

1866

Berlin Mission Society (BMS) establishes mission station in Pretoria -

four stands in Visagie and Andries Streets, for church and parsonage

1867     

BMS acquires Frischgewaagd (part of Daspoort Farm, west of present Zoo)

23 morgen (19,7 hectares) outside town boundary from Apies River in the North and Boom Street in the South, Steenhovenspruit in the West and Belle Ombre small holding in the East à development of Schoolplaats

Article 173 of the New Transvaal Constitution introduces measures to halt

urbanisation of African people. 3 groups of African residents identified in terms of accommodation:

i)      on farms along Apies River

ii)    in rooms or huts on white property

iii)   in Schoolplaats, the oldest township, established by the BMS

1871   

Transvaal Volksraad regulation:  non-whites allowed in towns only if they have employment in the area

(1871 & 1886 Discovery of gold and diamonds à rapid urbanisation of African people)

1875 

African population - 223 men, women and children in Schoolplaats

1876 

Establishment of small African  reserves

BMS school building erected

1878 

Non-white population mostly African and Coloured

Early 1880s 

Arrival of Indians in the Transvaal         

1880 

BMS parsonage erected

1881 

BMS new mission church built

BMS  4 stands in Visagie and Andries sold

BMS Schoolplaats: 96 stands along four streets running N/S.  Place for a hundred families, rows of fig trees, water from Apies River and 62 wells, township neat and orderly.

Convention of  Pretoria: more rights for Indian and Coloured people

n    removes limitations on movement

n    grants right to own and rent land and property

1884   

Schoolplaats a model township with 70 families

Convention of London: free movement and tenure of land to Indians and Coloureds.  Indians initially occupy area bounded by Van der Walt, Prinsloo, Church and Vermeulen Streets.

Coloureds from the Cape begin to settle in Pretoria.  They own/rent property in central Pretoria à complaints from white residents

1885 

Act 3 of 1885 of the South African Republic (Transvaal) Government:  Coolies, Arabs and other Asiatics denied citizenship and ownership of fixed property.  Indians to be resettled in certain street, wards or townships. 

Beginning of protest activities - Mahatma Gandhi involved.

1886 

Beginning of development of Witwatersrand goldfields à industrial development of Pretoria

1888 

Overpopulation of Schoolplaats à Establishment of Marabastad at village of Maraba - either named after local headman or Jeremia Maraba, chief constable and interpreter:

-         boundaries Apies River in the north, Skinner Spruit in the west, Steenhoven Spruit in the East and De Korte Street in the south

-         3 streets E/W, 2 streets N/S

-         residents not allowed to own stands

-         managed by government of Boer Republic

-         rent to government -- £4 a year

-         empty plots for growing crops

-         water from nearby river and spruits

1892-3     

 To clear Indians from city centre, Coolie Location proclaimed south of Marabastad:

-         boundaries from Struben Street in the south to Barber Street in the north and Steenhoven Spruit in the east to Von Wielligh (now DF Malan) in the west.

-         380 stands - normal blocks subdivided into smaller blocks, stands smaller than in Marabastad

-         Indians in Prinsloo Street resist move to Coolie Location

1893            

To clear Coloured people from city centre, Cape Location (Cape Boys' Location) proclaimed:

-         southern part of Coolie Location between Bloed and Stuben Streets proclaimed for Coloured occupation

-         Coloureds not residing on property of white employers, ordered to move to Cape Location

1895  

 Transvaal ‘Squatters Act', Act 21 of 1895:

-         maximum of 5 families to reside on farming property  (to protect whites from squatters) à hundreds of families forced to leave farms, settle in urban area

1895

Government regulations:

-         non-whites not allowed to walk on sidewalks and pavements

-         right to property in white areas prohibited

-         allowed to live in servants' quarters

-         makes to carry passbooks with employment contracts

1897 

Law 3 of 1897 prohibits marriage between white and coloured persons (Black people)

1898 

Additional regulations for township planning, management, erection of houses, influx control, hygiene and sanitation, restaurants.

1899 

Before Angl-Boer War, Indians began settling in Prinshof, North-east of city centre and Trevenna, east of Apies River, in Esselen Street area

Anglo-Boer War begins. More than half the Indian population leave Pretoria for Natal, the Cape and India to escape war.

Development of mining.  Influx of thousands of Africans into urban areas.

After Anglo-Boer War, African women allowed to settle in urban centres à provision of family housing, education, social and medical services à urbanisation of African people.

2.  UNDER BRITISH MILITARY AUTHORITIES 1900-1902

1900

British Military Authorities declare new area between Marabastad and Coolie Location for refugees - New Marabastad:

-         392 stands

-         21 year lease

-         80 refugee families and squatters

-         employees of military authorities and former residents of Old Marabastad

-         no street segregation between Africans, Asians and Coloureds

1901 

Schoolplaats - pipes laid, 1 tap per 100 families

1902 -1914 Beginnings of African resistance to urban conditions

3.      UNDER BRITISH COLONIAL RULE - TRANSVAAL AND ORANGE FREE STATE GOVERNMENTS - 1903 - 1910

1903 

Transvaal Municipal Corporations Ordinance No 58 of 1903

-         local authorities given authority to proclaim, move, deproclaim and manage townships for non-whites

-         residents not allowed to buy land, had to rent

-         right of compensation if moved

-         allowed to erect buildings under strict regulations

1903 

New Marabastad - 412 stands, 2500 residents

25 hectare area surveyed à 464 minute stands -15 by 15 meters

Taps for new Marabastad

Coolie Location renamed Asiatic Bazaar

Bazaar implied a more elevated status

Indians allowed to trade, own buildings, build mosques and temples to ‘express their culture.'

1903 

East Lynne township established, property couold be acquired by anyone

1904 

Management of Asiatic Bazaar and Cape Location under Pretoria City Council

1904 

New Marabastad (Africans) and Cape Location (Coloureds) placed under strict municipal control:

-         rates and tariffs determined

-         regulations: sanitary arrangements and water supply

-         provision of housing and temporary residences for those unable  to build their own dwellings

Africans from informal settlements around hostels, compounds and freehold townships, removed to New Marabastad:

-         boundaries of Marabastad determined - north, Apies River; south, Barber Street, west, skinner Street and east, Steenhoven Spruit

-         1166 small stands : 67 stands of old Marabastad divided into 665 stands, 412 stands of New Marabastad divided into 501 stands

-         population 3223

-         with 632 empty stands Marabastad not deemed overcrowded

-         no ownership rights to land - no well built permanent houses à shacks

-         unpaved streets

-         inadequate water supply

-         community and sanitary facilities almost non-existent

1904 

Waverley township established - property could be acquired by anyone

Coloureds in Asiatic Bazaar removed to Cape Location

1905

Cape Location resurveyed - 81 stands created

Schoolplaats - residents refuse to pay water accounts, forced to pay to avoid removal to Marabastad

South African Native Affairs Commission (SANAC) recommendations:

-         regulations to separate European areas from native areas

-         limit land occupied by Africans to force labour out to white industries

-         allow Africans to buy property, determine stand and build own buildings

-         local authorities to provide suitable and comfortable dwellings

these recommendations led to proclamation of freehold townships

1905-6 Five freehold townships - Lady Selborne, Eastwood, Newlands, riverside and Eersterust

1906 

Asiatic Law amendment Ordinance

-         to control influx of Indian men, women and children through enforced registration

-         beginning of Passive Resistance Movement - Hamidia Islamic society organises a meeting

(1906 - 1914 Protests, civil disobedience of Indians led by Mahatma Gandhi)

1907 

Sewage farm (Daspoort) to be established on 44 stands with 50 buildings in section of Old Marabastad

1907 

Immigration Restriction Act - to control influx of Indians into the country

A small portion of Asiatic Bazaar between Bloed and Boom Streets added to Cape Location

City Council erects 50 houses between 1923 and 1925 - similar to municipal housing schemes in Bantule

4.  UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA - GOVERNMENT UNDER SMUTS AND SOUTH AFRICAN PARTY (SAP)  1910 - 1921

1910 

Mahatma Gandhi establishes Tolstoy farm at Lawley on outskirts of Johannesburg.

1911 

Mines and Works Act reserved 32 types of jobs for whites only - reduced profitability of mines. 

Chamber of Mines opposed colour bar in mines.

1912 

Sewage Farm, north-west of town centre on southern slopes of Daspoortrant - Old Marabastad

People occupying the area moved to New Location (later renamed Bantule)

Beginning of demolition of Old Marabastad

1912 - 1920 

Old Marabastad evacuated and demolished

1912 

Formation of African National Congress

1913  

Natives Land Act (Act 27 of 1913)

-         separated whites and Africans in rural areas

-         froze existing tribal areas and stopped Africans from acquiring land outside these areas

-         Africans become landless nomads forced to migrate to urban areas

-         threat to existence of Schoolplaats - too close to municipal area      

1914 

Indian Relief Act and Gandhi-Smuts Agreement

-         does not alleviate difficulties in obtaining trading licences, upholds restriction on landowning rights, denies municipal franchise

1914 - 1918  (WWI)

-         demand for African labour in urban areas

-         population explosion in Marabastad, from the hundreds into the thousands à housing crisis

-         Africans rent rooms in Cape Location and Asiatic Bazaar

-         WWI - negative influence on BMS - decline of mission work --influx of more Africans into city - Schoolplaats becomes a ‘black spot' - overcrowding - serious health threat      

1916-17

Proposal of town council to resettle people of farm, Quaggaspoort, shelved.

(Quaggaspoort becomes Laudium in 1960s)

           

Towards end of WWI - 2700 Africans, Indians and Coloureds die of Spanish ‘Flu.

1919 

Asiatic Land Trading Amendment Act - stopped issuing of new trade licenses and ownership of property

1920 

The Housing Act of 1920 - new housing project.  Houses built on Eastern side of New Location (Bantule)

Owing to increased rentals to African people, shortage of housing in Cape Location.

Old Marabastad ceases to exist.

1921 

Local Government Commission headed by Frederick Stallard denies permanent residence and civic rights in urban areas.

1923 - 1950

UNCOORDINATED ATTEMPTS AT TOTAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION

5.  1923 - 1939

1923  

Native (Urban Areas) Act, 1923

Local authorities gain power

-         to demarcate and establish African townships on outskirts of white urban and industrial areas

-         determine access to and funding of these areas,

-         provide housing for those Africans not in locations (employers/local authorities)

-         determine beer-brewing and trading rights in locations

-         establish separate revenue circuits (revenues from fines, fees and rents) for maintenance and improvement of locations

In addition:

-         surplus African labour to supply white households, commerce and industry

-         those without jobs subject to deportation to reserves

(1924  Nationalist Party Government under JBM Hertzog)

1924  

Land from Asiatic Bazaar allocated to Coloureds

1925 

Marabastad and New Location officially defined as locations.  New Location renamed Bantule

Middle 1920s

African women allowed permanent residence in urban areas à  provision of health and social services

1926 

City Council purchases Schoolplaats land from BMS - removals to New Marabastad

Freehold townships for Africans - Claremont and Lady Selborne

Mines and Works Amendments Act (Colour Bar Act)  prohibits Black workers from becoming dynamiters, surveyors and machinist.

1927 

Native Administration Act - new structures and mechanisms for administering Black affairs.  Creation of Native Commissioner to: 

-         collect taxes

-         pay pensions

-         legalise traditional marriages

-         prosecute offenders


A Native Reception Depot (close to Marabastad) created to house jobseekers and issue work permits.

Immorality Act makes miscegenation and marriage between Africans and whites illegal

1920s - early 30s regular open air protest meetings spearheaded by ICU (Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union), ANC and Communist Party against

-         pass laws

-         police raids in townships - targeting beer brewing

1929 - 32 Great Depression, more Africans driven to urban areas.

1930

Stricter control of influx of women to urban areas

Schoolplaats deproclaimed.  African people moved to Lady Selborne and Eersterust à overcrowding in Marabastad and Bantule

1930 

16 December protest against passes, passes burned in Marabastad

Early 30s 

Highlands proclaimed township for Africans

1932 - 33   Great drought.  More Africans driven to urban areas

1932 

Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure Act

Amendments, 1935, 36,37,39,1949, repealed 1950

1934  

United party government (Nationalist and SAP merged), JBM Hertzog Prime Minister.

ISCOR established à need for African labour

Slum Clearance Act à evictions.  Part of Schoolplaats community removed to Marabastad

1936  

Mooiplaats, largest of squatter camps

Natives Trust and Land Act:

-         land made available  for purchase by tribal councils not individuals-reserves.

-         Reserves enlarged, dumping grounds for African peasants, registered squatters and labour tenants evicted from white properties

-         More evictions of Africans from white farms.  Afticans driven to urban areas, overcrowding

-         Squatter camps result of lack of planning for Blacks in urban areas

1937  

Native Laws Amendment Act

-         prohibited Africans from owning land in urban areas

-         limited churches, schools and other institutions to townships

-         ended possibility of expanding freehold townships of Lady Selborne, Eastwood, Highlands, Eersterust, Riverside

-         accelerated overpopulation: squatter crisis in Marabastad and Bantule

6.  1939 - 1948  UNDER SMUTS' GOVERNMENT

1939  United Party Government - Smuts Prime Minister

1939 - 1948 

Process of African urbanisation and growth of liberation movements accerelated.

1939 

Atteridgeville established on farm, Elandsfontein.

Recommendation to establish local authority for each province to administer areas not under Local Government control

Asiatic Land and Trading Act

1940 

First group of people moved from Marabastad to Atteridgeville

1942

WWII à need for labour.  Pass laws relaxed à  steady flow of Africans to urban centres (suspension of influx control laws)

Marabastad riot - municipal workers - dissatisfaction with wages. Living quarters, food

1943 

Trading and Occupation Land Bill (Pegging Act)

Indians restricted from buying property in white years for three years.

1944

Transvaal Peri-Urban Areas Health Board for control of freehold townships outside municipal areas

1945 

Native (Urban Areas) Consolidation Act of 1945:

-         enforces segregation

-         controls influx African into urban areas

-         enforces strict living and working conditions in urban areas

-         defines and limits sections of urban areas for African occupation

-         gives Minister of Native Affairs power to remove/abolish African townships

Pretoria City Council establishes Department of Native and Asiatic Affairs to manage Atteridgeville, Saulsville, Asiatic Bazaar and Vlakfontein (new township being planned for Africans.

1946 - 7

Planning of Vlakfontein.  1952-3 Vlakfontein completed.  (Vlakfontein later renamed Mamelodi)

1946 

Asiatic Land Tenure and Indian Representation Act (Ghetto Act)

-         Indians to confine living and trading to their own townships

-         Indians to be represented in parliament by one or two white members

1946 -1947  Passive Resistance to defy Asiatic Land Tenure and Indian Representation Act (Ghetto Act) by breaking laws prohibiting Indians from entering white owned properties.  Protest in Durban - includes batches of resisters from Transvaal and Cape

1946-8 

Native Laws Commission  (Fagan Commission)

Fagan Commission rejected Stallard Commission findings of 1922 and accepted the settlement of Africans in urban areas.

7.  TOWNSHIP REMOVAL AND SEGREGATION 1948 - 1959

      UNDER NATIONAL PARTY GOVERNMENT

1949   

Saulsville -African Location

Eersterust - Coloured Location

Asiatic Bazaar -Indian Location

Prohibition of Mixed marriages Act

Eiselen commission appointed to formulate principles of education for African à Bantu Education

Riots in Durban - Indian-African conflict

1950  

Immorality Amendment Act - miscegenation and marriage between persons of colour and whites made illegal.

Population Registration Act:

-         classification according to skin colour, descent and language

-         segregation of Whites, coloureds, Africans and Indians

Group Areas Act:

-         promulgated separate areas for the different race groups

-         determined planning of new towns and townships

-         Marabastad proclaimed white

-         Lady Selborne, Riverside, Eastwood, Highlands declared white

-         Property ownership, residence, industry and commerce and education linked to race group membership

Group Areas Amendments 1952, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1960, 1962, 1965, 1966

Government builds up reserves created by 1913 & 1936 Land Acts

-         declares reserves true homelands of African people

-         reserves house bulk of workforce and ‘surplus' population

Suppression of Communism Act

Non-European Affairs Committee replaces Native and Asiatic Department of 1945

1951

Bantu Authorities Act of 1951

Bantu tribal, regional and territorial authorities administer certain aspects of reserves

Tswana homeland first to apply for Homeland status

Separate Representation of Voters Act 46 removes Coloured people from the common voters' roll

Prevention of Illegal Squatting Act:

-         illegal to enter or settle on someone's land without permission of owner

-         targeted at squatter settlements in and around municipal areas to prevent the spread of informal settlements

-         magistrates given authority to order squatters to leave urban areas and to demolish shacks

1952 

Bantu (abolition of Passes and Co-ordination of Documents) Act à reference books that include ID, population classification, stamp registering employment and residence, and tax certificates.

Amendments to 1945 Native (Urban Areas) Consolidating Act à Section 10 regulations define which African people may remain in urban areas for more than 72 hours

a.      people born in an area and who had lived there continuously since birth

b.      people who had worked lawfully and continuously for one employer for 10 years or for several employers for 15 years

c.      wives and children under 18 of people in categories a & b

d.      people granted permits by labour bureaux to work for a fixed time contract

People who do not meet these criteria to be forcibly removed from urban areas

Native Services Levy Act imposes levies on employers to subsidise housing projects, transport and infrastructure for commuters

Defiance Campaign (Defiance of Unjust laws Campaign) - Defiance of discriminatory legislation.

Alliance of ANC, South African Indian Congress, Coloured People's Convention, Congress of Democrats, SACTU.

1953 

Criminal Laws Amendment Act - threatens extremely harsh action for people who defy the law

Public Safety Act gives government powers to declare states of emergency.

These two Acts bring Defiance Campaign to an end.

Central Archives Depot NTS 6458: 87/313 (8) (5) Memorandum 23.10.1953

Sequence of removals:

-         from squatter camps on farms next to white areas, on white owned property in freehold and other townships

-         Africans squatting on African owned land in Eerstrust and Riverside

-         African landowners in Riverside, Eersterust, Eastwood, Highland, Newlands, Lady Selborne and Claremont

First removals: squatters to Atteridgeville and Saulsville.  Last of Marabstad community resettled à ethnic groupings in new townships.

Separate Amenities Act - separate public facilities

Bantu Education Act - separate education and system for Africans run by government's Native Affairs Department.

1954 

Bantu Resettlement Act à removal of Africans from city centres

Population in Bantule and Marabastad drops to 6000

(in Johannesburg - Africans, Coloureds, Indians, Chinese removed from Sophiatown)

1955

Bantu (Urban Areas) Amendment Act:

-         abolishes African freehold rights to property

-         abolishes African freehold townships

1951-55 removal of Africans to Atteridgville complete

1955 

Advisory boards for Atteridgeville, Saulsville, Vlakfontein (Mamelodi)

Marabastad and Cape Location deproclaimed as townships

Kliptown Congress of the People

1956

Bantu Prohibition of Interdicts Act - people not allowed to appeal against evictions

           

August 9  Women's March against passes for African women

December  10    156 leaders arrested  à Treason Trial 

(1957, January - Jan 1958 preparatory examination for Treason Trial, Drill Hall Johannesburg - 65 of the accused discharged, 91 committed for trial

August 1 - Treason Trial begins - indictment withdrawn.  Accused re-indicted in two separate groups

1959, 19 January, Trial of First Group - 30 people including Helen Joseph, Lilian Ngoyi, Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu.  Charges under Suppression of Communism Act dropped.  Second group of 61 released.

August, Trial of 30 begins in Pretoria.  Drags on with interruptions until 1961  March.  Treason Trial ends.  All charges dropped.)

1957 

Removal of squatters from Hovesgrond to Saulsville

from Bantule to Vlakfontein (Mamelodi)

from Eastern parts of Pretoria (Eastwood, Highlands, Newlands, Riverside,   Eersterust) to Vlakfontein.

Informal settlements north and south of municipal area to Temba (Hammanskraal) and Tembisa

New Mooiplaats  informal settlement

Saulsville new African location

1954-1959  

Removal of residents of largest squatter camps - Old and New Mooiplaats - to Saulsville.

Late 1950's Vlakfontein fully occupied. 

City encircled by informal settlement.

1957  

Native Services Levy Act:

-         levies on employers to subsidise transport and infrastructure for commuters

-         subsidies for housing projects

Pretoria city council willingly co-operates with government.  (Johannesburg refuses to move Africans off freehold land to Soweto.) 

Last of Marabastad community resettled.

Ethnic groupings in new townships.

Process of removals completed by early 1960s when landowning residents of freehold townships removed.

Mid-1950s first massive removals: Lady Selborne, Riverside, Eastwood, Highlands declared white, Eersterust declared Coloured, part of Asiatic Bazaar open to Indian traders.

Bantu (Urban Areas) Amendment Act

-         African freehold rights to property abolished

-         African freehold townships abolished

Property owners, especially Indians, used courts to delay removals.

8  FOCUS ON BANTUSTANS 1959 -1976

1959 

Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act

-         limited parliamentary representation of Africans abolished

-         8 Bantustans defined: N. Sotho, S. sotho, Tswana, zulu, Swazi, Xhosa, Tsonga, Venda

Extension of University Education Act: white universities closed to blacks à

separate universities for blacks - ‘tribal colleges'

1960's

Township of Claudius proclaimed for Indians (originally established for whites on old Mooiplaats land) became known as Laudium.

Indians moved from freehold townships to Laudium.

1960  

Border area Development Programme launched: industrialists to establish factory areas adjacent to Bantustans (Rosslyn, Hammanskraal)

Vlakfontien extended to resettle residents of freehold townships.

March 21 : Sharpeville.  Massacre of people protesting against pass laws.

Declaration of State of Emergency.  Widespread arrests in Transvaal including some on trial for treason.

1961,

March 29.  Treason Trial ends.  All acquitted and released.

Mandela goes underground.

May 31 South African becomes an Independent Republic - leaves the British Commonwealth.

Garankuwa established: labour for Rosslyn Industries.

Africans from freehold townships removed to Garankuwa

These measures fail to reverse trend of migration to urban areas.

Tswana Territorial authority: new system of local self-government for Tswana people.

1962

Vlakfontein renamed Mamelodi

Freehold township of Eersterust proclaimed Coloured Group Area - plans for removal of people from Cape Location

Nelson Rohihlahla Mandela arrested, tried and sent to Robben Island

1963 

Rivonia Activists arrested for sabotage.  Rivonia Trial begins.  Mandela brought from Robben Island to stand trial with Rivonia men. Mandela and Rivonia men sentenced to life imprisonment on Robben Island.

Separate Education Department for Coloured people.

1964

Bantu Laws Amendment Act:

-         transferred powers of influx control from municipal offices to labour bureaux.

-         limited rights of African women to settle in towns.

-         those under Section 10 (1) declared idle and undesirable

-         ‘Aid Centres' established for processing pass offenders

Mid-1960s  establishment of Bantu towns

-         as cachement for ‘surplus' rural populations and those working in white towns and industries

-         to house commuters

-         to remove Africans from ‘black spot areas'  (blacks in sections of white areas)

à  decline in subsistence farming

Bantustans almost totally dependent on income from the outside (government subsidies etc.)

1960s Africans moved from Waverly and Kilner Park

1964
Waverly and Kilnerton incorporated into Pretoria municipal area.  Training institution closed down.

National Indian Council (later South African Indian Council) appointed by government.  Link between Minister of Indian Affairs (White) and Indian community.

1967

Separate Education Department and System for Indians

SASO (South African Students' Organisation) established.  Steve Biko first president à Black Consciousness Movement.

Department of Bantu Administration and Development Circular 27 of 1967

-         forces people into Bantustans

-         limits expansion of townships, Atteridgeville, Saulsville, Mamelodi

1968

Labour Bureaux established in Bantustans to prevent work seekers migrating to urban areas.

Coloured Persons' Representative Council appointed.  Link between Minister of Coloured Affairs (White) and Coloured community

1969 - 1970

Development of townships in Bantustans eg. Mabopane

-         influx control and housing shortages force people into Mabopane

-         residents from squatter camps in Atteridgeville and Mamelodi resettled in Mabopane

-         Residents from squatter camps in Atteridgewille and Mamelodi reseetlled in Mabopane

-         Wallmansthal community declared a ‘black spot' - resettled in Mabopane

1970

Community Councils established for Mamelodi and Atteridgeville consisting of elected councillors representing wards and hostels.

Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act:  every African declared citizen of a Bantustan regardless of residence.

1971

Bantu Affairs Administration Act

Establishment of Administration Boards directly under Bantu Affairs Department - removes responsibility for influx control and municipal government in African townships from white local authorities to Administration Boards.

Bantu Homelands Constitution Act à  Legislative Assemblies in Bantustans

1972

Self-government granted to Tswana Bantustan - Boputhatswana.  Tswana citizenship prerequisite for owning property - resisted by those unwilling to relinquish property rights elsewhere and take on Tswana citizenship.

BPC (Black People's convention) formed -adult wing of BCM (Black Consciousness Movement) carries struggle forward.

1973

Bantu Laws Amendment Act

-         extends powers of Legislative Assemblies in Bantustans

-         sets up procedure for consolidation of Bantustan land

1976

Transkei becomes ‘independent self-governing' Bantustan.  Bantustans created ‘to decentralise economy, promote regional growth and new urban areas.'

Asiatic Bazaar no longer a residential area

Work of BPC (BCM) leads to Soweto Uprising

Pupils demonstrate against imposition of Afrikaans as medium of instruction

Proposals for establishment of separate parliaments for Whites, Coloureds and Indians

1977

September, death of Steve Biko in detention

Boputhatswana becomes ‘independent self-governing' Bantustan

1979  

Venda becomes ‘independent self-governing' Bantustan

Late 70s  Soshanguve (Sotho, Shangaan, Nguni, Venda) established inside ‘white South Africa' to provide a supply of labour for Rosslyn.

People forced out of Mabopane and Garankuwa, resettled in Soshanguve

Wiehahn Commission - recognition of black Trade Unions

Riekert Commission recommendations:

-         greater freedom of movement and choice of workplace for African workers

-         creation of African middle class, urban population with property rights, higher standard of living, job mobility

Meanwhile in Bantustans - low paid contract labour, lives on margins of existence

1980

Koornhof Bills - local government for Africans and new influx control laws

School boycotts - Coloured and Indian pupils

Formation of Detainees' Parents' Support Committees to monitor and protect masses of detained children.

1981  

Ciskei becomes ‘independent self-governing' Bantustan.

Black Local Authorities Act - to create town councils in African townships.

Formation of Anti- SAIC and Anti-CRC committees to organise boycott of elections of Indian and Coloureds to racial councils (formerly government appointed)

Nov 4, elections for SAIC (South African Indian Council) and CRC (Coloured Representative Council); only a tiny minority vote

President's Council established to draw up recommendations for a new constitution à Tri-Cameral System

United Democratic Front (UDF) comes into being to oppose Tri-Cameral Government

1983

Promulgation of Tri-Cameral System of Government with three separate houses for Whites, Indians and Coloureds.  House of Delegates for Indians and House of Representative for Coloureds - advisory bodies to the white House of Legislature.

Launch of UDF

-         to oppose Tri-Cameral system

-         to campaign for the release of Nelson Mandela

-         to oppose Section 10 regulations (Koornhof bills) restricting movement of African people

1984

Elections in Indian and Coloured communities for Tri-Cameral Parliament

Black Communities Development Act 

-         Bantu Administration Boards renamed Development Boards (later transformed to Community Services Divisions of Provincial Administrations) act in conjunction with Elected Local Authorities.

In Pretoria, powers transferred from City Council Non-European Affairs Committee and from Advisory Boards of the African townships to the Pretoria Administration Board.

Town Councils for Mamelodi and Atteridgeville

1986

Abolition of pass laws

1989

Release of Rivonia Trialists from Robben Island

1990

Release of Nelson Mandela after 27 years in prison

Mass short-term detentions especially in Homeland areas to prevent formation of democratic organisations

Massive school boycotts à schools made ungovernableà break down of culture of teaching and learning

1991- 3

CODESA deliberations for the construction of a new society based on democratic principles

1994

Elections for the first democratic government of South Africa

Mandela first president of a new democratic South Africa.

Sources

1.      De Jong,  RC, ‘The Need for Total Removal,'  Research by the National Cultural Museum, vol 4, 1995, pp 17 -80

2.      Liebenberg, BJ and Spies SB, eds. South Africa in the 20th Century.  Pretoria¨JL van Schaik, 1993

3.      Naidoo, Jay.  Tracking down Historical Myths.  Johannesburg: AD Donker (Pty) Ltd, 1989.

4.      Van der Waal, Gerhard-Mark.  Marabastad: Fountain of Life: A diversity of cultures creating new opportunities. Pretoria: Pretoria Inner city Partnership, 16 November, 1998.

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