This appendix provides a chronological listing of selected regulations leading to the establishment and management of the area now known as Marabastad. Interspersed among these are important events that impacted on the lives of the people living in the area. The sequential order may make it somewhat difficult to identify processes because Black people were not regarded as citizens but as distinctly different groups needing specific legislation according to race and the threats that each group posed to British and Afrikaner rulers. Listing events chronologically brings together the different regulations for Africans, Indians and Coloureds and gives some indication of very complicated processes and the effort required to perpetuate and manage segregation, keep it under control and overcome its contradictions.
1830 - 1923
1. UNDER THE SOUTH AFRICAN (TRANSVAAL BOER) REPUBLIC 1830 - 1900
Voortrekkers settle in the area that later becomes Pretoria
near Ndebele villages
Manala community - eastern Moot north of the Magaliesberg
Tswana and Northern Sotho in central area
Article 29 of the ‘Drie-en-dertig Artikelen' (South African Republic)
Africans not allowed to settle permanently on white farms
White farmers formally establish Pretoria
African people from rural areas move to town to look for work
Some find work on small firms along the Apies River
Others - domestic workers - accommodated in rooms/huts on white property
Africans allowed to settle and work in white towns.
Sign contracts with employers
(1860 Indians-indentured labourers-arrive in Natal. After a five year period
of indenture, those who become free, are subject to a £3 tax. Many leave for the Transvaal and other places.)
Berlin Mission Society (BMS) establishes mission station in Pretoria -
four stands in Visagie and Andries Streets, for church and parsonage
BMS acquires Frischgewaagd (part of Daspoort Farm, west of present Zoo)
23 morgen (19,7 hectares) outside town boundary from Apies River in the North and Boom Street in the South, Steenhovenspruit in the West and Belle Ombre small holding in the East à development of Schoolplaats
Article 173 of the New Transvaal Constitution introduces measures to halt
urbanisation of African people. 3 groups of African residents identified in terms of accommodation:
i) on farms along Apies River
ii) in rooms or huts on white property
iii) in Schoolplaats, the oldest township, established by the BMS
Transvaal Volksraad regulation: non-whites allowed in towns only if they have employment in the area
(1871 & 1886 Discovery of gold and diamonds à rapid urbanisation of African people)
African population - 223 men, women and children in Schoolplaats
Establishment of small African reserves
BMS school building erected
Non-white population mostly African and Coloured
Arrival of Indians in the Transvaal
BMS parsonage erected
BMS new mission church built
BMS 4 stands in Visagie and Andries sold
BMS Schoolplaats: 96 stands along four streets running N/S. Place for a hundred families, rows of fig trees, water from Apies River and 62 wells, township neat and orderly.
Convention of Pretoria: more rights for Indian and Coloured people
n removes limitations on movement
n grants right to own and rent land and property
Schoolplaats a model township with 70 families
Convention of London: free movement and tenure of land to Indians and Coloureds. Indians initially occupy area bounded by Van der Walt, Prinsloo, Church and Vermeulen Streets.
Coloureds from the Cape begin to settle in Pretoria. They own/rent property in central Pretoria à complaints from white residents
Act 3 of 1885 of the South African Republic (Transvaal) Government: Coolies, Arabs and other Asiatics denied citizenship and ownership of fixed property. Indians to be resettled in certain street, wards or townships.
Beginning of protest activities - Mahatma Gandhi involved.
Beginning of development of Witwatersrand goldfields à industrial development of Pretoria
Overpopulation of Schoolplaats à Establishment of Marabastad at village of Maraba - either named after local headman or Jeremia Maraba, chief constable and interpreter:
- boundaries Apies River in the north, Skinner Spruit in the west, Steenhoven Spruit in the East and De Korte Street in the south
- 3 streets E/W, 2 streets N/S
- residents not allowed to own stands
- managed by government of Boer Republic
- rent to government -- £4 a year
- empty plots for growing crops
- water from nearby river and spruits
To clear Indians from city centre, Coolie Location proclaimed south of Marabastad:
- boundaries from Struben Street in the south to Barber Street in the north and Steenhoven Spruit in the east to Von Wielligh (now DF Malan) in the west.
- 380 stands - normal blocks subdivided into smaller blocks, stands smaller than in Marabastad
- Indians in Prinsloo Street resist move to Coolie Location
To clear Coloured people from city centre, Cape Location (Cape Boys' Location) proclaimed:
- southern part of Coolie Location between Bloed and Stuben Streets proclaimed for Coloured occupation
- Coloureds not residing on property of white employers, ordered to move to Cape Location
Transvaal ‘Squatters Act', Act 21 of 1895:
- maximum of 5 families to reside on farming property (to protect whites from squatters) à hundreds of families forced to leave farms, settle in urban area
- non-whites not allowed to walk on sidewalks and pavements
- right to property in white areas prohibited
- allowed to live in servants' quarters
- makes to carry passbooks with employment contracts
Law 3 of 1897 prohibits marriage between white and coloured persons (Black people)
Additional regulations for township planning, management, erection of houses, influx control, hygiene and sanitation, restaurants.
Before Angl-Boer War, Indians began settling in Prinshof, North-east of city centre and Trevenna, east of Apies River, in Esselen Street area
Anglo-Boer War begins. More than half the Indian population leave Pretoria for Natal, the Cape and India to escape war.
Development of mining. Influx of thousands of Africans into urban areas.
After Anglo-Boer War, African women allowed to settle in urban centres à provision of family housing, education, social and medical services à urbanisation of African people.
2. UNDER BRITISH MILITARY AUTHORITIES 1900-1902
British Military Authorities declare new area between Marabastad and Coolie Location for refugees - New Marabastad:
- 392 stands
- 21 year lease
- 80 refugee families and squatters
- employees of military authorities and former residents of Old Marabastad
- no street segregation between Africans, Asians and Coloureds
Schoolplaats - pipes laid, 1 tap per 100 families
1902 -1914 Beginnings of African resistance to urban conditions
3. UNDER BRITISH COLONIAL RULE - TRANSVAAL AND ORANGE FREE STATE GOVERNMENTS - 1903 - 1910
Transvaal Municipal Corporations Ordinance No 58 of 1903
- local authorities given authority to proclaim, move, deproclaim and manage townships for non-whites
- residents not allowed to buy land, had to rent
- right of compensation if moved
- allowed to erect buildings under strict regulations
New Marabastad - 412 stands, 2500 residents
25 hectare area surveyed à 464 minute stands -15 by 15 meters
Taps for new Marabastad
Coolie Location renamed Asiatic Bazaar
Bazaar implied a more elevated status
Indians allowed to trade, own buildings, build mosques and temples to ‘express their culture.'
East Lynne township established, property couold be acquired by anyone
Management of Asiatic Bazaar and Cape Location under Pretoria City Council
New Marabastad (Africans) and Cape Location (Coloureds) placed under strict municipal control:
- rates and tariffs determined
- regulations: sanitary arrangements and water supply
- provision of housing and temporary residences for those unable to build their own dwellings
Africans from informal settlements around hostels, compounds and freehold townships, removed to New Marabastad:
- boundaries of Marabastad determined - north, Apies River; south, Barber Street, west, skinner Street and east, Steenhoven Spruit
- 1166 small stands : 67 stands of old Marabastad divided into 665 stands, 412 stands of New Marabastad divided into 501 stands
- population 3223
- with 632 empty stands Marabastad not deemed overcrowded
- no ownership rights to land - no well built permanent houses à shacks
- unpaved streets
- inadequate water supply
- community and sanitary facilities almost non-existent
Waverley township established - property could be acquired by anyone
Coloureds in Asiatic Bazaar removed to Cape Location
Cape Location resurveyed - 81 stands created
Schoolplaats - residents refuse to pay water accounts, forced to pay to avoid removal to Marabastad
South African Native Affairs Commission (SANAC) recommendations:
- regulations to separate European areas from native areas
- limit land occupied by Africans to force labour out to white industries
- allow Africans to buy property, determine stand and build own buildings
- local authorities to provide suitable and comfortable dwellings
these recommendations led to proclamation of freehold townships
1905-6 Five freehold townships - Lady Selborne, Eastwood, Newlands, riverside and Eersterust
Asiatic Law amendment Ordinance
- to control influx of Indian men, women and children through enforced registration
- beginning of Passive Resistance Movement - Hamidia Islamic society organises a meeting
(1906 - 1914 Protests, civil disobedience of Indians led by Mahatma Gandhi)
Sewage farm (Daspoort) to be established on 44 stands with 50 buildings in section of Old Marabastad
Immigration Restriction Act - to control influx of Indians into the country
A small portion of Asiatic Bazaar between Bloed and Boom Streets added to Cape Location
City Council erects 50 houses between 1923 and 1925 - similar to municipal housing schemes in Bantule
4. UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA - GOVERNMENT UNDER SMUTS AND SOUTH AFRICAN PARTY (SAP) 1910 - 1921
Mahatma Gandhi establishes Tolstoy farm at Lawley on outskirts of Johannesburg.
Mines and Works Act reserved 32 types of jobs for whites only - reduced profitability of mines.
Chamber of Mines opposed colour bar in mines.
Sewage Farm, north-west of town centre on southern slopes of Daspoortrant - Old Marabastad
People occupying the area moved to New Location (later renamed Bantule)
Beginning of demolition of Old Marabastad
1912 - 1920
Old Marabastad evacuated and demolished
Formation of African National Congress
Natives Land Act (Act 27 of 1913)
- separated whites and Africans in rural areas
- froze existing tribal areas and stopped Africans from acquiring land outside these areas
- Africans become landless nomads forced to migrate to urban areas
- threat to existence of Schoolplaats - too close to municipal area
Indian Relief Act and Gandhi-Smuts Agreement
- does not alleviate difficulties in obtaining trading licences, upholds restriction on landowning rights, denies municipal franchise
1914 - 1918 (WWI)
- demand for African labour in urban areas
- population explosion in Marabastad, from the hundreds into the thousands à housing crisis
- Africans rent rooms in Cape Location and Asiatic Bazaar
- WWI - negative influence on BMS - decline of mission work --influx of more Africans into city - Schoolplaats becomes a ‘black spot' - overcrowding - serious health threat
Proposal of town council to resettle people of farm, Quaggaspoort, shelved.
(Quaggaspoort becomes Laudium in 1960s)
Towards end of WWI - 2700 Africans, Indians and Coloureds die of Spanish ‘Flu.
Asiatic Land Trading Amendment Act - stopped issuing of new trade licenses and ownership of property
The Housing Act of 1920 - new housing project. Houses built on Eastern side of New Location (Bantule)
Owing to increased rentals to African people, shortage of housing in Cape Location.
Old Marabastad ceases to exist.
Local Government Commission headed by Frederick Stallard denies permanent residence and civic rights in urban areas.
1923 - 1950
UNCOORDINATED ATTEMPTS AT TOTAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION
5. 1923 - 1939
Native (Urban Areas) Act, 1923
Local authorities gain power
- to demarcate and establish African townships on outskirts of white urban and industrial areas
- determine access to and funding of these areas,
- provide housing for those Africans not in locations (employers/local authorities)
- determine beer-brewing and trading rights in locations
- establish separate revenue circuits (revenues from fines, fees and rents) for maintenance and improvement of locations
- surplus African labour to supply white households, commerce and industry
- those without jobs subject to deportation to reserves
(1924 Nationalist Party Government under JBM Hertzog)
Land from Asiatic Bazaar allocated to Coloureds
Marabastad and New Location officially defined as locations. New Location renamed Bantule
African women allowed permanent residence in urban areas à provision of health and social services
City Council purchases Schoolplaats land from BMS - removals to New Marabastad
Freehold townships for Africans - Claremont and Lady Selborne
Mines and Works Amendments Act (Colour Bar Act) prohibits Black workers from becoming dynamiters, surveyors and machinist.
Native Administration Act - new structures and mechanisms for administering Black affairs. Creation of Native Commissioner to:
- collect taxes
- pay pensions
- legalise traditional marriages
- prosecute offenders
A Native Reception Depot (close to Marabastad) created to house jobseekers and issue work permits.
Immorality Act makes miscegenation and marriage between Africans and whites illegal
1920s - early 30s regular open air protest meetings spearheaded by ICU (Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union), ANC and Communist Party against
- pass laws
- police raids in townships - targeting beer brewing
1929 - 32 Great Depression, more Africans driven to urban areas.
Stricter control of influx of women to urban areas
Schoolplaats deproclaimed. African people moved to Lady Selborne and Eersterust à overcrowding in Marabastad and Bantule
16 December protest against passes, passes burned in Marabastad
Highlands proclaimed township for Africans
1932 - 33 Great drought. More Africans driven to urban areas
Transvaal Asiatic Land Tenure Act
Amendments, 1935, 36,37,39,1949, repealed 1950
United party government (Nationalist and SAP merged), JBM Hertzog Prime Minister.
ISCOR established à need for African labour
Slum Clearance Act à evictions. Part of Schoolplaats community removed to Marabastad
Mooiplaats, largest of squatter camps
Natives Trust and Land Act:
- land made available for purchase by tribal councils not individuals-reserves.
- Reserves enlarged, dumping grounds for African peasants, registered squatters and labour tenants evicted from white properties
- More evictions of Africans from white farms. Afticans driven to urban areas, overcrowding
- Squatter camps result of lack of planning for Blacks in urban areas
Native Laws Amendment Act
- prohibited Africans from owning land in urban areas
- limited churches, schools and other institutions to townships
- ended possibility of expanding freehold townships of Lady Selborne, Eastwood, Highlands, Eersterust, Riverside
- accelerated overpopulation: squatter crisis in Marabastad and Bantule
6. 1939 - 1948 UNDER SMUTS' GOVERNMENT
1939 United Party Government - Smuts Prime Minister
1939 - 1948
Process of African urbanisation and growth of liberation movements accerelated.
Atteridgeville established on farm, Elandsfontein.
Recommendation to establish local authority for each province to administer areas not under Local Government control
Asiatic Land and Trading Act
First group of people moved from Marabastad to Atteridgeville
WWII à need for labour. Pass laws relaxed à steady flow of Africans to urban centres (suspension of influx control laws)
Marabastad riot - municipal workers - dissatisfaction with wages. Living quarters, food
Trading and Occupation Land Bill (Pegging Act)
Indians restricted from buying property in white years for three years.
Transvaal Peri-Urban Areas Health Board for control of freehold townships outside municipal areas
Native (Urban Areas) Consolidation Act of 1945:
- enforces segregation
- controls influx African into urban areas
- enforces strict living and working conditions in urban areas
- defines and limits sections of urban areas for African occupation
- gives Minister of Native Affairs power to remove/abolish African townships
Pretoria City Council establishes Department of Native and Asiatic Affairs to manage Atteridgeville, Saulsville, Asiatic Bazaar and Vlakfontein (new township being planned for Africans.
1946 - 7
Planning of Vlakfontein. 1952-3 Vlakfontein completed. (Vlakfontein later renamed Mamelodi)
Asiatic Land Tenure and Indian Representation Act (Ghetto Act)
- Indians to confine living and trading to their own townships
- Indians to be represented in parliament by one or two white members
1946 -1947 Passive Resistance to defy Asiatic Land Tenure and Indian Representation Act (Ghetto Act) by breaking laws prohibiting Indians from entering white owned properties. Protest in Durban - includes batches of resisters from Transvaal and Cape
Native Laws Commission (Fagan Commission)
Fagan Commission rejected Stallard Commission findings of 1922 and accepted the settlement of Africans in urban areas.
7. TOWNSHIP REMOVAL AND SEGREGATION 1948 - 1959
UNDER NATIONAL PARTY GOVERNMENT
Saulsville -African Location
Eersterust - Coloured Location
Asiatic Bazaar -Indian Location
Prohibition of Mixed marriages Act
Eiselen commission appointed to formulate principles of education for African à Bantu Education
Riots in Durban - Indian-African conflict
Immorality Amendment Act - miscegenation and marriage between persons of colour and whites made illegal.
Population Registration Act:
- classification according to skin colour, descent and language
- segregation of Whites, coloureds, Africans and Indians
Group Areas Act:
- promulgated separate areas for the different race groups
- determined planning of new towns and townships
- Marabastad proclaimed white
- Lady Selborne, Riverside, Eastwood, Highlands declared white
- Property ownership, residence, industry and commerce and education linked to race group membership
Group Areas Amendments 1952, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1960, 1962, 1965, 1966
Government builds up reserves created by 1913 & 1936 Land Acts
- declares reserves true homelands of African people
- reserves house bulk of workforce and ‘surplus' population
Suppression of Communism Act
Non-European Affairs Committee replaces Native and Asiatic Department of 1945
Bantu Authorities Act of 1951
Bantu tribal, regional and territorial authorities administer certain aspects of reserves
Tswana homeland first to apply for Homeland status
Separate Representation of Voters Act 46 removes Coloured people from the common voters' roll
Prevention of Illegal Squatting Act:
- illegal to enter or settle on someone's land without permission of owner
- targeted at squatter settlements in and around municipal areas to prevent the spread of informal settlements
- magistrates given authority to order squatters to leave urban areas and to demolish shacks
Bantu (abolition of Passes and Co-ordination of Documents) Act à reference books that include ID, population classification, stamp registering employment and residence, and tax certificates.
Amendments to 1945 Native (Urban Areas) Consolidating Act à Section 10 regulations define which African people may remain in urban areas for more than 72 hours
a. people born in an area and who had lived there continuously since birth
b. people who had worked lawfully and continuously for one employer for 10 years or for several employers for 15 years
c. wives and children under 18 of people in categories a & b
d. people granted permits by labour bureaux to work for a fixed time contract
People who do not meet these criteria to be forcibly removed from urban areas
Native Services Levy Act imposes levies on employers to subsidise housing projects, transport and infrastructure for commuters
Defiance Campaign (Defiance of Unjust laws Campaign) - Defiance of discriminatory legislation.
Alliance of ANC, South African Indian Congress, Coloured People's Convention, Congress of Democrats, SACTU.
Criminal Laws Amendment Act - threatens extremely harsh action for people who defy the law
Public Safety Act gives government powers to declare states of emergency.
These two Acts bring Defiance Campaign to an end.
Central Archives Depot NTS 6458: 87/313 (8) (5) Memorandum 23.10.1953
Sequence of removals:
- from squatter camps on farms next to white areas, on white owned property in freehold and other townships
- Africans squatting on African owned land in Eerstrust and Riverside
- African landowners in Riverside, Eersterust, Eastwood, Highland, Newlands, Lady Selborne and Claremont
First removals: squatters to Atteridgeville and Saulsville. Last of Marabstad community resettled à ethnic groupings in new townships.
Separate Amenities Act - separate public facilities
Bantu Education Act - separate education and system for Africans run by government's Native Affairs Department.
Bantu Resettlement Act à removal of Africans from city centres
Population in Bantule and Marabastad drops to 6000
(in Johannesburg - Africans, Coloureds, Indians, Chinese removed from Sophiatown)
Bantu (Urban Areas) Amendment Act:
- abolishes African freehold rights to property
- abolishes African freehold townships
1951-55 removal of Africans to Atteridgville complete
Advisory boards for Atteridgeville, Saulsville, Vlakfontein (Mamelodi)
Marabastad and Cape Location deproclaimed as townships
Kliptown Congress of the People
Bantu Prohibition of Interdicts Act - people not allowed to appeal against evictions
August 9 Women's March against passes for African women
December 10 156 leaders arrested à Treason Trial
(1957, January - Jan 1958 preparatory examination for Treason Trial, Drill Hall Johannesburg - 65 of the accused discharged, 91 committed for trial
August 1 - Treason Trial begins - indictment withdrawn. Accused re-indicted in two separate groups
1959, 19 January, Trial of First Group - 30 people including Helen Joseph, Lilian Ngoyi, Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu. Charges under Suppression of Communism Act dropped. Second group of 61 released.
August, Trial of 30 begins in Pretoria. Drags on with interruptions until 1961 March. Treason Trial ends. All charges dropped.)
Removal of squatters from Hovesgrond to Saulsville
from Bantule to Vlakfontein (Mamelodi)
from Eastern parts of Pretoria (Eastwood, Highlands, Newlands, Riverside, Eersterust) to Vlakfontein.
Informal settlements north and south of municipal area to Temba (Hammanskraal) and Tembisa
New Mooiplaats informal settlement
Saulsville new African location
Removal of residents of largest squatter camps - Old and New Mooiplaats - to Saulsville.
Late 1950's Vlakfontein fully occupied.
City encircled by informal settlement.
Native Services Levy Act:
- levies on employers to subsidise transport and infrastructure for commuters
- subsidies for housing projects
Pretoria city council willingly co-operates with government. (Johannesburg refuses to move Africans off freehold land to Soweto.)
Last of Marabastad community resettled.
Ethnic groupings in new townships.
Process of removals completed by early 1960s when landowning residents of freehold townships removed.
Mid-1950s first massive removals: Lady Selborne, Riverside, Eastwood, Highlands declared white, Eersterust declared Coloured, part of Asiatic Bazaar open to Indian traders.
Bantu (Urban Areas) Amendment Act
- African freehold rights to property abolished
- African freehold townships abolished
Property owners, especially Indians, used courts to delay removals.
8 FOCUS ON BANTUSTANS 1959 -1976
Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act
- limited parliamentary representation of Africans abolished
- 8 Bantustans defined: N. Sotho, S. sotho, Tswana, zulu, Swazi, Xhosa, Tsonga, Venda
Extension of University Education Act: white universities closed to blacks à
separate universities for blacks - ‘tribal colleges'
Township of Claudius proclaimed for Indians (originally established for whites on old Mooiplaats land) became known as Laudium.
Indians moved from freehold townships to Laudium.
Border area Development Programme launched: industrialists to establish factory areas adjacent to Bantustans (Rosslyn, Hammanskraal)
Vlakfontien extended to resettle residents of freehold townships.
March 21 : Sharpeville. Massacre of people protesting against pass laws.
Declaration of State of Emergency. Widespread arrests in Transvaal including some on trial for treason.
March 29. Treason Trial ends. All acquitted and released.
Mandela goes underground.
May 31 South African becomes an Independent Republic - leaves the British Commonwealth.
Garankuwa established: labour for Rosslyn Industries.
Africans from freehold townships removed to Garankuwa
These measures fail to reverse trend of migration to urban areas.
Tswana Territorial authority: new system of local self-government for Tswana people.
Vlakfontein renamed Mamelodi
Freehold township of Eersterust proclaimed Coloured Group Area - plans for removal of people from Cape Location
Nelson Rohihlahla Mandela arrested, tried and sent to Robben Island
Rivonia Activists arrested for sabotage. Rivonia Trial begins. Mandela brought from Robben Island to stand trial with Rivonia men. Mandela and Rivonia men sentenced to life imprisonment on Robben Island.
Separate Education Department for Coloured people.
Bantu Laws Amendment Act:
- transferred powers of influx control from municipal offices to labour bureaux.
- limited rights of African women to settle in towns.
- those under Section 10 (1) declared idle and undesirable
- ‘Aid Centres' established for processing pass offenders
Mid-1960s establishment of Bantu towns
- as cachement for ‘surplus' rural populations and those working in white towns and industries
- to house commuters
- to remove Africans from ‘black spot areas' (blacks in sections of white areas)
à decline in subsistence farming
Bantustans almost totally dependent on income from the outside (government subsidies etc.)
1960s Africans moved from Waverly and Kilner Park
Waverly and Kilnerton incorporated into Pretoria municipal area. Training institution closed down.
National Indian Council (later South African Indian Council) appointed by government. Link between Minister of Indian Affairs (White) and Indian community.
Separate Education Department and System for Indians
SASO (South African Students' Organisation) established. Steve Biko first president à Black Consciousness Movement.
Department of Bantu Administration and Development Circular 27 of 1967
- forces people into Bantustans
- limits expansion of townships, Atteridgeville, Saulsville, Mamelodi
Labour Bureaux established in Bantustans to prevent work seekers migrating to urban areas.
Coloured Persons' Representative Council appointed. Link between Minister of Coloured Affairs (White) and Coloured community
1969 - 1970
Development of townships in Bantustans eg. Mabopane
- influx control and housing shortages force people into Mabopane
- residents from squatter camps in Atteridgeville and Mamelodi resettled in Mabopane
- Residents from squatter camps in Atteridgewille and Mamelodi reseetlled in Mabopane
- Wallmansthal community declared a ‘black spot' - resettled in Mabopane
Community Councils established for Mamelodi and Atteridgeville consisting of elected councillors representing wards and hostels.
Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act: every African declared citizen of a Bantustan regardless of residence.
Bantu Affairs Administration Act
Establishment of Administration Boards directly under Bantu Affairs Department - removes responsibility for influx control and municipal government in African townships from white local authorities to Administration Boards.
Bantu Homelands Constitution Act à Legislative Assemblies in Bantustans
Self-government granted to Tswana Bantustan - Boputhatswana. Tswana citizenship prerequisite for owning property - resisted by those unwilling to relinquish property rights elsewhere and take on Tswana citizenship.
BPC (Black People's convention) formed -adult wing of BCM (Black Consciousness Movement) carries struggle forward.
Bantu Laws Amendment Act
- extends powers of Legislative Assemblies in Bantustans
- sets up procedure for consolidation of Bantustan land
Transkei becomes ‘independent self-governing' Bantustan. Bantustans created ‘to decentralise economy, promote regional growth and new urban areas.'
Asiatic Bazaar no longer a residential area
Work of BPC (BCM) leads to Soweto Uprising
Pupils demonstrate against imposition of Afrikaans as medium of instruction
Proposals for establishment of separate parliaments for Whites, Coloureds and Indians
September, death of Steve Biko in detention
Boputhatswana becomes ‘independent self-governing' Bantustan
Venda becomes ‘independent self-governing' Bantustan
Late 70s Soshanguve (Sotho, Shangaan, Nguni, Venda) established inside ‘white South Africa' to provide a supply of labour for Rosslyn.
People forced out of Mabopane and Garankuwa, resettled in Soshanguve
Wiehahn Commission - recognition of black Trade Unions
Riekert Commission recommendations:
- greater freedom of movement and choice of workplace for African workers
- creation of African middle class, urban population with property rights, higher standard of living, job mobility
Meanwhile in Bantustans - low paid contract labour, lives on margins of existence
Koornhof Bills - local government for Africans and new influx control laws
School boycotts - Coloured and Indian pupils
Formation of Detainees' Parents' Support Committees to monitor and protect masses of detained children.
Ciskei becomes ‘independent self-governing' Bantustan.
Black Local Authorities Act - to create town councils in African townships.
Formation of Anti- SAIC and Anti-CRC committees to organise boycott of elections of Indian and Coloureds to racial councils (formerly government appointed)
Nov 4, elections for SAIC (South African Indian Council) and CRC (Coloured Representative Council); only a tiny minority vote
President's Council established to draw up recommendations for a new constitution à Tri-Cameral System
United Democratic Front (UDF) comes into being to oppose Tri-Cameral Government
Promulgation of Tri-Cameral System of Government with three separate houses for Whites, Indians and Coloureds. House of Delegates for Indians and House of Representative for Coloureds - advisory bodies to the white House of Legislature.
Launch of UDF
- to oppose Tri-Cameral system
- to campaign for the release of Nelson Mandela
- to oppose Section 10 regulations (Koornhof bills) restricting movement of African people
Elections in Indian and Coloured communities for Tri-Cameral Parliament
Black Communities Development Act
- Bantu Administration Boards renamed Development Boards (later transformed to Community Services Divisions of Provincial Administrations) act in conjunction with Elected Local Authorities.
In Pretoria, powers transferred from City Council Non-European Affairs Committee and from Advisory Boards of the African townships to the Pretoria Administration Board.
Town Councils for Mamelodi and Atteridgeville
Abolition of pass laws
Release of Rivonia Trialists from Robben Island
Release of Nelson Mandela after 27 years in prison
Mass short-term detentions especially in Homeland areas to prevent formation of democratic organisations
Massive school boycotts à schools made ungovernableà break down of culture of teaching and learning
CODESA deliberations for the construction of a new society based on democratic principles
Elections for the first democratic government of South Africa
Mandela first president of a new democratic South Africa.
1. De Jong, RC, ‘The Need for Total Removal,' Research by the National Cultural Museum, vol 4, 1995, pp 17 -80
2. Liebenberg, BJ and Spies SB, eds. South Africa in the 20th Century. Pretoria¨JL van Schaik, 1993
3. Naidoo, Jay. Tracking down Historical Myths. Johannesburg: AD Donker (Pty) Ltd, 1989.
4. Van der Waal, Gerhard-Mark. Marabastad: Fountain of Life: A diversity of cultures creating new opportunities. Pretoria: Pretoria Inner city Partnership, 16 November, 1998.